We’ve all worked with a metronome. I don’t know about yours, but my metronome has a nasty habit of slowing down or speeding up no matter how perfectly I play! However, learning how to play with one of these infernal mechanical timekeepers is not only a good idea for helping to control your sense of time, it’s an absolute necessity for any professional musician. Just a couple of years ago, a high-quality metronome would set you back a pretty penny. Now that there are so many apps for smart phones, it’s possible to carry a number of outstanding metronomic tools right in your pocket. While apps are cheap, I haven’t yet found a single metronome app that can do everything you can do with a drum machine (the perfect metronome). Not only can a drum machine serve as your mechanical slave driver, it can also make working on your time and timing so much more productive and fun.
Since many folks who used drum machines on a regular basis have switched over to software, you can find great machines on eBay for less than the price of a moderate metronome. A recent search found Alesis SR-16 and HR-16 models for around $50, a Boss DR660 for $80, and a killer Roland R8 for $140. Below are a dozen ideas for making a drum machine into the most flexible metronome you’ve every seen.
Most drum machines have memory locations for 100 different patterns. It’s an easy project to program all the different time signatures you want. Each pattern can be its own time signature and each time signature can have its own series of subdivisions.
For example, you can create a measure of 4/4 using a strong sound for each downbeat, a different sound for each quarter, and a third sound for eighth-notes. Even if you create one pattern each with subdivisions for eighths, eighth-triplets, and sixteenths, you’ll still have 97 additional patterns. While this particular example is pretty easy for even the least-expensive smart-phone app, how about patterns in 7/8? You can easily create a number of different 7/8 bars with the subdivisions of 2+2+3, 2+3+2, and 3+2+2. A normal 12/8 bar has several different feels: 6+6, 4+4+4, 3+3+3+3, 2+2+2+2+2+2, to name a few.
Once you’ve got a large collection of measures in different meters, it’s a simple step to create songs, exercises, or etudes that switch meters. In addition to 100 different locations for patterns, drum machines have the ability to store up to 100 different songs. Songs are created by stringing together a series of different patterns.
Let’s say, for example, that pattern #6 is a bar of 6/8; pattern #12 is a bar of 4/4; and pattern #16 is a bar of 7/8 phrased 3+2+2. By creating a song that consists of looping these three patterns over and over, you’ll create a three-bar phrase that is twenty-one eighth-notes long.
For sure, your drum machine can reproduce every function of even the most advanced metronome. You can place different sounds on every beat and at every level of subdivision. It’s easy to program one sound on each quarter, eighth, sixteenth, or even thirty-second-note. While these big beats and subdivisions are helpful, they won’t help you in hearing bigger phrases. The term “hypermeasure” is sometimes used for the musical technique of combining smaller measures together that sound like a much slower and longer meter. For example, you might find three measures of 4/4 time that together make the groove feel like a much slower measure of 3/4 time.
You can do this with a drum machine by programming one pattern with a heavy and long sound on the downbeat. Then when you create the song, use this bar for the “big downbeat” of the hypermeasure.
To play an implied meter, you simple play one meter inside of another meter. Depending on the complexity of your implied meter, the implication may also be at a faster or slower tempo than the original.
For example, take a bar of 12/8 time and divide it into eighth-notes so that it has sort of a blues feel. Then program a note on the downbeat, the second eighth of the second beat, and the third eighth of the third beat. The result will sound like a large 3:4 rhythm.
Now, to truly make this an implied meter, you would want to string at least two of these bars together, using sounds that would imply three measures of 2/4 time for every two bars of the 12/8 meter.
Here’s an idea that can really point out some of your potential weaknesses for holding a steady groove. Program a few patterns that are totally silent. In other words, create a bar of 2/4 that doesn’t have any events so that when you play that particular pattern, you won’t hear anything. Once you’ve done that, create a song that is three bars of 4/4 followed by one bar of 2/4, followed by this silent 2/4 bar. The result is a four-bar phrase where the metronome drops out for the last two beats. By playing against this sequence, you’ll easily be able to hear if you’re rushing or dragging when the metronome drops out and then re-enters.
Once you gain confidence with playing over the gap of silence, you can start to increase the length of time that the click disappears. I suggest increasing the size of the gap by two beats at a time, until you finally can play four bars when only giving yourself the first two quarter-notes of the phrase.
With a drum machine, it’s easy to set up authentic rhythmic patterns in a large variety of musical styles. Since your drum machine will contain sounds for congas, bongos, shakers, agogo bells, etc., you can create patterns that are phrases of samba, bossa nova, rumba, mambo, son, guaguanco, songo, and more. The list is only limited by your knowledge and research of various musical styles. Once your groove is programmed you can practice playing grooves on top of these rhythms.